Images in Practice



MAP "A representation of the earth's surface, or a part of it, its physical and political features, or of the heavens, delineated on a flat surface of paper, according to a definite scale or projection...." OED


PROJECTION, " a representation on a plain surface of the whole or any part of the surface of the earth, or of the celestial sphere, any one of the modes in which this is done..." OED





A.H.Robinson, R.D.Sale, Elements of Cartography, Wiley, New York, London, 1969, 3rd edition, [1953]

G.H.Drury, Map Interpretation, Pitman, London, 1966 [1960]

Michael and Susan Southworth, Maps. A Visual Survey and a Design Guide, New York Graphical Society, Little Brown and co., Boston, 1982.

J.K.S. St.Joseph, The Uses of Air Photography, John Baker, London, 2nd ed.1977 [1966] see 2. Air Photography and Cartography.


about art



Svetlana Alpers, The Art of Describing, Dutch Art in the Seventeenth Century, Penguin, London 1989, see Chapter 4 "The Mapping Impulse".

E.H.Gombrich, The Image and the Eye, Further Studies in the Psychology of Pictorial Representation, Phaidon, Oxford, 1982, "Mirror and Map :Theories of Pictorial Representation"





H.J.Deverson (text) , Ronald Lampit (illust), The Map that came to Life, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1954 [1948], and much recommended - learning built into a story of two children on holiday.

Deborah Manley and Pamela Cotterill, Maps and map games, Piccolo Books, 1976.

Frank Debenham, The World is Round, Macdonald, Rathbone, London 1958

T.C.Bridges and H. Alnwick, Look Up Your Atlas, Harrap and Sons, London 1943. A rare and unpretentious book explaining in big, clear colour diagrams certain geographical facts and figures.

Peter Hood, ABOUT MAPS, Puffin Picture Book, Penguin, Harmondsworth, 1950. What Maps and Plans are for ; A Village with its Plan; Part of a Town and the Plan of its Streets; Finding Your Direction; The Scale of Maps; The Ordnance Maps; The National Grid; More Ordnance Maps; sections from Four Ordnance Maps of different scales; What Contours are; Some Symbols and What they mean; Taken from the One-inch to the Mile Map; the Weather Map; an Old Map 1588; Greenwich Observatory; Maps Don't tell all the truth.other sorts of maps )admiralty chart; air map; Ordnance survey/ Underground Railway; star chart; agricultural map.




A.H.Dickson, Manual of Map and Compass Reading, Bernards, London 1943, and a cheap,popular pulp book with "To Berlin" on the cover, extolling the virtues of map reading skills.





Nigel Holmes, PICTORIAL MAPS, The Herbert Press, London, 1991.

Stephen Constantine, BUY and BUILD, The Advertising Art of the Empire Marketiing Board, Public Record Office, London 1986. Introduction. origins and Aims of the Empire Marketing Board.Commissioning and Designing. Printing and Displaying. The Masseage, The Imapact. The Plates. See the posters of MacDolald Gill - Australia and Highways of Empire.

VISUAL TELLING OF STORIES -maps on endpapers


for various




Mark Monmonier, Cartographies of Danger, Mapping Hazards in America, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1997.

Mark Monmonier, How To Lie with Maps, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1991.


Dorothy V.Jones, Splendid Encounters. The Thought and Conduct of Diplomacy, The University of Chicago Library., 1984. A marvelously illustrated list of events and invented systems of protocol, where maps feature tellingly.


THE STATE OF.... BOOKS. Concepts expressed in the shape of maps - objective and recognisable - subjective and searchable.

Dan Smith, The State of War and Peace Atlas, Penguin London 1996. The Red Horse in the 1990's (War). Conflicts of interest. Regimes and Rights. Blood and Soil. Unlicensed Terror. The Death Toll. Fear and Flight. Lethal Urgency. The Disintegration. Ethnic Cleansing. Edge of Empire. From War o war./ Nationless Nation. Holy Lands. Militant Faith. After the Raj.

Michael Kidron and Ronald Segal, The State of the World Atlas, Pan, London, 1981. The Aggressive State. Arms and the State. Natural Resources. Economy. Government. Holds on the Mind. Business. Labour. Society. Environment. Symptoms of crisis. Signs of Dissent.

Stephen Fothergill and Jill Vincent,The State of the Nation Atlas, An Atlas of Britain in the 80's, Pan/Pluto, London, 1985. People. Ownership and Control. Economy. Workers. Politics. Welfare. Tensions. Environment.



Douglas M.Johnson, The Theory and History of Ocean Boundary-Making, McGill/Queens, Kingston, Montreal, 1988. Not exactly overburdened with images but an important subsection often overlooked.



William James Burroughs, Watching the World's Weather, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1991. See Chapter 5, data handling.



Gerard Chaliand and Jean-Pierre Rageau, The Penguin Atlas of the Diasporas, Penguin, London, 1997 [ 1995] (Jewish, Armenian, Gypsy, Black, Chinese, Indian, Irish, Greek, Lebanese, Palestinian, Vietnamese and Korean).


Peter Whitfield, New Found Lands. Maps in the History of Exploration, The British Library, London 1998. Exploration in the Ancient World. The Lure of the East 1250 - 1550. The New World 1490 - 1630. The Pacific and Australia 1520 -1800. The Continents Explored 1500 - 1900. Postscript - Exploration in the Modern World.

Charles Nicholl, the Creature in the Map, Sir Walter Ralegh's Quest for El Dorado, Vintage, New York, 1995. The author re-traces Ralegh's expedition of 1595 to South America to find El Dorado. The author bases much of his surmise on the 'large charte' drawn up to Ralegh's instructions in late 1595, and now in the British Museum, London.

Antonio Pigafetti, Magellan's Voyage. A Narrative Account of the First Circumnavigation, Dover, New York, 1994 [1969] a translation of the original manuscript in the collection of Yale University by one of the few survivors of Magellan's voyage.

John Larner, Marco Polo and the Discovery of the World, Yale University Press, New Haven, 1999. The author traces the impact made upon the cartographers of the period by Polo's book. In Appendix III he outlines the extant world maps of the Fifteenth Century.

G.V.Scammell, The World Encompassed. The first European maritime empires c.800 - 1650. Methuen, London and New York, 1981.

Dava Sobel, Longitude, The True Story of a Lone Genius Who Solved the Greatest Scientific Problem of His Time, Fourth Estate, London 1996, and the story of the eighteenth century instrument maker John Harrison, a very successful book - "a popular account and not a scientific study..." which begat a television film with Michael Gambon in costume.

Mary W.Helms, Ulysses' Sail, An Ethnographic Odyssey of Power, Knowledge and Geographical Distance, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 1989. See Chapter 6 with an extended discussion of the early mappae mundi and their ways of inferring the shapes and information of distant lands, pp112 - 120.

J.E.D.Williams, From Sails to Satellites. The origin and development of navigational science, Oxford University Press, Oxford 1992.



Kenneth Nebenzahl, Maps of the Holy Land, Images of Terra Sancta through Two Millennia, Abbeville, New York, 1986. The Late Classical World and Early Middle Ages. The High Middle Ages and the Crusades. The Renaissance and the rise of Portolan Charts. The Sixteenth Century and Development of the Map Trade. Holy Land Cartography after Christian von Adrichom. French Influence and the Origins of Modern Surveying. List of Plates. Bibliog.




Rodney W. Shirley, The Mapping of the World, Early Printed Maps 1472 - 1700, New Holland, London, 1993 [1984]

Simon Berthon and Andrew Robinson, The Shape of the World, George Philip for Granada TV, London 1991. Heaven and Erath. Imperial Visions. The Gods Return. Secrets of the East. Old Worlds,New Worlds. Triangles and Theodolites. The Freedom of the Oceans. Measuring India. Opening Up America, Pictures of the Planet. Chronology.

Lloyd A.Brown, The Story of Maps, Dover, New York, 1977 [1949]

Alan Hodgkiss, , Understanding Maps. A systematic history of their use and development, Dawson, Folkestone, 1981.

R.V.Tooley, Maps and Map-Makers, Dorset Press, New York, 1990 [1949] the standard general reference book on cartography. Pre-Christian Geography to Ptolemy. The Arabs and Medieval Europe. Italy. Germany, Austria and Switzerland. Holland and Belgium. French Cartography. English Mapmakers (English Marine Atlases). The County Maps of England and Wales. (Large-scale country maps of England. English County Atlases). Scotland and Ireland. Africa. Asia. America. Australia. Scandinavia.

John Logan Allen, North American Exploration, The University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln and London, 3 vols., 1997. Each volume has a set of specialist essays by miscellaneous authors.

Herman Viola and Carolyn Margolis (eds) Magnificent Voyages, The US Exploring Expeditions 1823 - 1842, Smithsonian, Washington, 1985. see chapter 8, Surveying and Charting the Pacific Basin.

P.D.A.Harvey, Topographical Maps, Symbols, Pictures and Surveys, Thames and Hudson, London, 1980

Kenneth Nebenzahl, Atlas of Columbus and The Great Discoveries, Rand McNally, Chicago, 1990. The Cartographic Tradition Inherited by Columbus; Columbus and his Contemporaries Change the Map; Filling in the Features of the Earth; Europe's Colonial Era Begins.

P.D.A.Harvey, Maps in Tudor England, The Public Record Office and the British Library 1993. A Cartographic revolution. Maps and Fortifications. Maps and Government. Maps and Towns. Maps and Landed estates. Maps and Buildings. Maps and the Law. Further Reading.

Tim Owen and Elaine Pilbeam, ORDNANCE SURVEY Map Makers to Britain since 1791, Ordnance Survey, Southampton, HMSO, London 1992.Chronology. Introduction. Origin and Early Maps. Mudge and Colby. The Irish Survey. Back in Britain. The Battle of the Scales. The Importance of Being [Major Henry] James. Full Steam Ahead. Gathering Clouds. The Lean Years. At War Again. Davidson Days. Working to Plan. Changing Direction. Market Led. Chronology, Select Bibliography.

A.E.Nordenskiold, Facsimile Atlas to the early history of cartography with reproductions of the most important maps of the XV and XVI centuries, Stockholm 1889 and available in a reprint by Dover 1973 with introduction by J.B.Post. The geographical atlas of Ptolemy. Editions of Ptolemy's geography. Pseudo-editions of Ptolemy. Ptolemy's errors and merits. Ancient, not Ptolemaic maps. Extensions of Ptolemy's Oikumene towards the north and north-west. The first maps of the New World, and f the newly discovered parts of Africa and Asia. Terrestrial globes from the 15th and the first part of the VI centuries. Map Projections. The end of the early period of cartography 1520 - 1550. The transition to and the beginning of the modern period. Jacopo Gastaldi.Philip Apianus. Abraham Ortelius. Gerard Mercator.

R.Tooley (choice), Charles Brickner (author), preface G.Crone, Landmarks of Mapmaking, An Illustrated Survey of Maps and Mapmaking, Phaidon, Oxford, 1976. Chapter by Continent.





Peter Gould and Rodney White, Mental Maps, Penguin, Harmondsworth, 1974. The Images of Places. How we measure geographic Preferences. Images of Britain. Environmental Preferences and Regional Images in America. Patterns of Ignorance, Information and Learning. Mental Maps and Administration. Mental Maps in Today's World.

Dora Beale Polk, The Island of California, A History of the Myth, University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln and London 1995 [1991] The implications of the early mediaeval myth that California was not a promontory but an island.

Henry Stommel, Lost Islands. The story of islands that have vanished from Nautical Charts, University of British Columbia Press, Vancouver, 1984.





maps in



Jasper Johns, Map, oil on canvas, 198 x 312 cms., MOMA NY 1961, see Kirk Varnedoe, Jasper Johns, A Retrospective, exhibition catalogue, MOMA/Abrams, 1997. see also Map, exhibit 96 (1962) and Map, exhibit 97(1963).

Peter Weibel (curator) OCEAN EARTH, exhibition Graz, Austria, 1993. Interesting sequence of projects involving, agriculture, climate and contemporary environmental issues, involving some innovatory concepts of map-making.

see the paintings of Manny Farber, particularly the Birthplace, Douglas Ariz., image, exhibition catalogue, The Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles. the multi-referenced narrative seen in a carefully selected and juxtaposed objects seen from above.


Roy Stanley, World War II Photo Intelligence, Sidgwick and Jackson, London, 1982. Where Does it Fit ? Background on Imagery Intelligence. From Curiosity to Necessity: A Modest History.Organised for War: Units, Locations and Activities. Camera Haulers:The Aircraft. Freezing Images : The Cameras. Bring 'Em Back Alive:The Mission. Mission Complete, the Work has just begun: Photo-Processing. Making Images into Intelligence:Photo Interpretation. Good but not Perfect:Errors, Successes and Oddities. APPENDICES US Army Air Forces Flying Units and Aircraft Collecting Imagery during WWII. Organisation of US Army Air Forces Combat Photo Collection Units. Commonwealth Flying Units and Aircraft Collecting Imagery. Glossary. Bibliog.

Military Manuals; my copy of the War Office's Manual of Map Reading, Photo Reading and Field Sketching, was published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London 1939. I give a detailed contents page for the significance not only of the date but also the subject.




Chiara Frugoni, A Distant City Images of Urban Experience in the Medieval World, Princeton University press, Princeton, 1991 [1982] translated by William McCuaig. particularly strong on the representation of the urban entity from medieval manuscripts.

James Elliott, The City in Maps, urban mapping to 1900, The British Library, London 1987. Introduction:the earliest town plans. The medieval city. Braun and Hogenberg and after: the town plans of the seventeenth century. Early plans of the British Isles. The baroque city: the town plans of the eighteenth century. Industry and Empire:the town plans of the nineteenth century. Medical and Social mapping. 'Fire and the Sword'. Further reading.

Norman J.Johnson, Cities in the Round, University of Washington Press, Seattle and London 1983. Circles - the Persistent Symbol Circular Cities of the Ancient Near East; The Classical World's Circular City Theories; The Circular City of the Medieval World ; Renaissance Circular Cities - 15th and 16th centuries; Baroque Circular Cities -17th and 18th centuries ;Circular Cities of the Nineteenth and Twentieth centuries. A Postscript for Circular Cities.

John Goss, Braun and Hogenburg's The City Maps of Europe, A Selection of 16th century Town Plans and Views, facsimile of 60 plates , Studio Editions, London, 1991.





as a


Thomas Pynchon, Mason & Dixon, Vintage, New York 1998

James Cowan, A Mapmaker's Dream, The Meditations of Fra Mauro, Cartographer to the Court of Venice, Warner Books, New York 1996.

John Livingston Lowes, The Road to Xanadu, A Study in the Ways of the Imagination, Constable, London, 2nd edition 1930. The celebrated account of Coleridge's sources and stimuli, some of a distinctly secondary nature, in the development of themes converging on Ancient Mariner and Kubla Khan. See p.119 ff.


literary maps


Barbara Strachey, Journeys of Frodo. An Atlas of J.R.R.Tolkein's The Lord of the Rings, Unwin, London 1981.

Karen Wynn Fonstad, The Atlas of Tolkein's Middle Earth, Harper Collins, London, 1994. Many and detailed maps of journeys and battles, comprehensive.

J.B.Post, An Atlas of Fantasy, Souvenir Press, New York, 1979 [1973]

Alberto Manguel and Gianni Guadalupi, the dictionary of IMAGINARY PLACES, Macmillan, New York, 1980. Comprehensive and learned, with maps and charts by James Cook, illustrated by Graham Greenfield.





Samuel Pepys, Diary, several references to his collection of maps and charts.See Penguin, The Shorter Pepys, 1993



Catherine Hofmann, Danielle Lecoq, Eve Netchine, Monique Peletier, Le Globe & Son Image, Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale de France, 1995. The earth's Globe as registered in prints and drawings, medals and book illumination.




Christopher Walker (ed) Astronomy before the telescope, British Museum Press, London 1996.

George Sergeant Snyder, Maps of the Heavens, Andre Deutsch, 1984. Heaven and Earth; The Sun, the Stars, and the Moon; The Constellations; The Celestial Spheres; Designing the Heavens; New Horizons; Plates, ack., Further Reading.

Carole Stott, Celestial Charts, Studio, London, 1995. A large colour book of reproductions from a wide range of dates and cultures.


maps &


R.A.Skelton, Thomas Marston, and George Painter, The Vinland Map and the Tartar Relation, Yale University Press, New Haven and London, 1995 [1965]

Nigel Nicholson (intro) The Counties of Britain, A Tudor Atlas by John Speed, Pavilion and the British Library, 1995 [1988]

Richard T.Godfrey, Wenceslaus Hollar. A Bohemian Artist in England, Yale Centre for British Art, New Haven.

Sarah Tyacke and John Huddy, Christopher Saxton and Tudor Mapmaking, The British Library, London, 1980.

Katherine S.Van Eerde, John Ogilby and the Taste of His Times, Dawson, Folkestone, 1976. See Chapter 6 - the great atlases.

The Surveyors soon discover, that the Meridian drawn north from the Tangent Point, will run slightly inside the Twelve-Mile arc, crossing it twice, at points about a mile and a half apart - producing now between them two boundary lines, one "straight", and one about a thousandth of a mile longer, "curved" (which will one day be declar'd the Legal Boundary a Mile longer, thus whittling a tiny Sliver from Maryland). The three and a half Miles to the West Line remaining can be run as a piece of pure meridian , - to be styl'd "the North Line"..." Thomas Pynchon as above, p.468.


"As he patiently laboured over his mappa mundi for those years, he began to recognise the power of invisible events to change the course of history. What he failed to mention, however, was the idea of an invisible geography, affecting the way we think about place." Cowan above, p.151.


" I have long, indeed for years, played with the idea of setting out the sphere of life - bios - graphically on a map but now I incline to a general staff's map of a city centre, if such a thing existed. Doubtless it does not , because of the ignorance of the theatre of future wars."


Walter Benjamin, One-Way Street Verso, London, 1997