Frances Yates, The Art of Memory, Routledge and Kegan Paul, London , 1966.

Thomas Butler, Memory: History, Culture and the Mind, Basil Blackwell, Oxford, 1989 the Wolfson College Lectures.

Alan D.Baddley, The Psychology of Memory, Harper & Row London, 1985 (1976);

Horace Lecoq de Boisbaudron , The Training of the Memory in Art, Macmillan, London, 1914

translated from the French by L.C.Luard and with an introduction by Selwyn Image

James McConkey, The Anatomy of Memory, An Anthology, OUP New York London 1996.

Richard Sorabji, Aristotle on Memory, Duckworth, London 1972. Sections on Memory, Mnemonic Techniques, and a translation of De Memoria et Remeniscentia, with interpretative summaries.

Mary Warnock, Memory, Faber and Faber, London 1987

Steven Rose, The Making of Memory, From Molecules to Mind, Bantam, London 1992. " of the most challenging of all biological and human phenomena, that of memory..." see Chapter 5, "Holes in the Head, Holes in the Mind" - Memory as Image Making - The Time Course of Memory - Diseases of memory - Recognition versus Recall - Forms of memory - Inferring Function from Dysfunction - Holes in the Brain - Holes in the Mind - Windows on the Brain.

David Berglas, and Guy Lion Playfair, A Question of Memory, Jonathan Cape, London , 1988. A joint authorship, scientific writer and conjuror/mind reader. A modern account of mnemonic tricks.

Ian M.L.Hunter, MEMORY Facts and Fallacies, Penguin, Harmondsworth, 1961 [1957]

1. What is memory ? 2. memorizing 3. Why do we forget ? 4. Recalling Stories and Events 5. Repressing 6. Imaging 7. Improving memory.


MUSIC - Frederick Shinn, Musical memory and its Cultivation, Vincent London 1898.

NARRATIVE - James Olney, Memory & Narrative The Weave of Life-Writing, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1998. Memory and the Narrative Imperative. Jean-Jacques Rousseau and the Crisis of Narrative Memory. Sections on St.Augustine's Confessions.






"[Harry] Furniss cultivated a trick of making rough notes blind in his pocket - a difficult job at first, but one at which improvement comes with practice. In my experience a better dodge in emergencies is to 'draw' notes with the forefinger upon the palm of the hand. After all, half the value of putting down lines on paper is that by action, the lines are also put down in memory... 'Spy' believed that his best work in pure caricature was a done from memory, but from memory ordered and educated by copious note-taking beforehand. " David Low, Ye Madde Designer, 1936. p.77

F.Yates The Art of Memory 1966 see beneath

"To think is to speculate with images..." Giordano Bruno Shadows 1582. Yates traces the rivalry of two diametrically opposed methods of remembering - the Ramist approach of hierarchies of importance with no images, and the Renaissance occult method (Bruno) of generating images and learning to intensifying them, pp 270 ff.

Rudyard Kipling, Something of Myself Penguin 1988 (first published 1936)

"My office work had taught me to think out a notion in detail, pack it away in my head, and work on it by snatches in any surroundings. The lurch and surge of the old horse-drawn buses made a luxurious cradle for such ruminations. Bit by bit, my original notion grew into a vast, vague conspectus - Army and Navy Stores list if you like - of the whole sweep and meaning of things and effort and origins throughout the Empire. I visualised it as I do most ideas, in the shape of a semi-circle of buildings and temples projecting out into a sea - of dreams ."