From drawing into film.
"Storyboards are always left till last after the cast is booked
and the locations chosen. The director uses them to plan out the film's
scenes; it's cheaper to do drawings than to go out and shoot immediately.
The storyboard artist discusses the director and maps it out on paper.The
artist has to think like the director, planning lots of angles (using
lots of arrows to visualise where things go, considering the lighting
(working out where light sources come from and deciding where the actors
should be positioned. It's important to have a good idea of images through
cameras and lenses, I found it helpful to have studied photography as
well as fine art. An entire film can run into thousands of storyboard
drawings, charting every scene. They are photocopied and circulated throughout
the crew - the cameramen, designers, riggers,. producers. I work from
location photographs to get an idea of how the setting will look. But
generally I have only one image of something so I have to imagine it
from all angles. Not all directors use storyboards however. Some express
their ideas verbally. Others do not plot everything before they start
work. " John Greaves, storyboard artist, The Independent, 18.2.92
Three Examples for further study
Glossary of the Storyboard
(a compilation of specimens of storyboards will be handed out at the
LS Long Shot
POV Point of View
Process A process shot in front of a screen
CU Close Up
OS Off Screen
Obj Objective, not POV
Insert Scene to be added later
Compositional sketches for the film Chapayev , directed by the Vasilievs
and camera man, Sigayev; from Vladimir Nilson, The Cinema as Graphic
Art, Newnes, London undated c1935.
Films REFERRED TO
A1. Family Plot, 1976, the cemetery scene A2 North by Northwest,
1959, the Mount Rushmore sequence.
Fellas , Scorcese, the director's own drawing for the photographer.
B2 Bonfire of the Vanities , de Palma's computer generated storyboard.
B3 Citizen Kane , Welles, the correspondence between the storyboard and
B4 Bladerunner , Ridley Scott, from drawing to film.
B5 Drowning by Numbers , Greenaway, an artist's use of drawings.
B6 Gone with the Wind
C) Other material
C1 Winsor McCay, Gertie the Dinosaur , 1905.
C2 Winsor McCay, Little Nemo 1905/7 film material on McCay from documentary
Pioneers of Animation .
EXERCISES, FOR DISCUSSION
1. storyboard by Thomas J.Wright for the cemetery scene for Family
Plot , the pursuit of Mrs. Maloney by Lumley.
2. Mentor Huebner storyboard for art director Robert Boyle on North
by Northwest the
climactic scene on Mount Rushmore.
3. Title sequence for Walk on the Wild Side, storyboarded and
designed by Saul Bass (from Contemporary Masterpieces , St James Press
4. directors using storyboards,Welles (Kane ) Martin Scorcese (Good
Fellas ) Jacques Tati (Monsieur Hulot) and Brian de Palma (Bonfire of the
SATYAJIT RAY'S STORYBOARD FOR KANCHENJUNGHA
Edward Carrick, Designing for Film, Studio London 1949
Edward Carrick, Art and Design in the British Film , Dobson
R.Myerscough-Walker, Stage and Film Decor, Pitman London 1940.
Eric Barnouw, The Magician and the Cinema, OUP Oxford 1981.
John Fell, Film and the Narrative Tradition, Univ. of Oklahoma
Karel Rerisz, et al., The Technique of Film Editing , Focal Press
Vladimir Nilsen, The Cinema as a Graphic Art, Newnes London undated.
Edward Maeder et al., Hollywood and History, Costume Design in Film, Thames & Hudson London 1987.
Donald Spoto, The Art of Alfred Hitchcock, Hopkinson and Blake
W.Rothman, Hitchcock, the Murderous Gaze , Harvard Mass 1982.
F.Truffaut, The Complete Hitchcock, Paladin London 1986.
Thompson and Christie, Scorcese on Scorcese , Faber and Faber London
1989, storyboard for Taxi Driver.