• How did Vermeer use the Camera Obscura ?
• The portable Camera Obscura.
• Canaletto and George Dance's portraits.
• The Epidiascope - Norman Rockwell and Franz Klein.
• The development of the Camera Lucida (William Wollaston) and its incarnation in the Cornelius Varley Patent Graphic Telescope, used by John Sell Cotman.

Booklist for Optical Instruments.


J.H.Hammond, The Camera Obscura, A Chronicle, Hilger, Bristoi 1981.

J.H. Hammond, Jill Austin, The Camera Lucida in Art and Science , Hilger Bristol, 1987.

M.Pidgley, "Cornelius Varley, Cotman and the Graphic Telescope, Burlington Magazine 1972.

Jonathan Mayne, Thomas Gainsborough's Exhibition Box, , Victoria and Albert Museum London

Willem Garveseande, An Essay on Perspective, 1724, "The Use of the Camera Obscura in designing" the sedan chair camera obscura

Dean Cornwell using an epidiascope for murals Los Angeles Public Library May 1932

Artist's Sketching Glass US undated c1935

A.J.Pernety, Dictionnaire 1757, camera obscura

J.E.Zeiseg, The Magic Lantern 1765

View Master for Selling 1956

Magic Lantern for Mural painting FORTUNE Nov 1930

Magic Lanterns and slides, Ernst Plank 1914